ISSN 2063-5346
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Abdelrahim Awadelkarim Abdelrahman Mohamed, Muhammad Asif, Dr Azba Natasha, Tooba Qaiser, Syeda Tasbiha Fatima Naqvi, Hamdan Siddig Sirag Ahmed, Khurram Shahzad, Kashif Lodhi
» doi: 10.53555/ecb/2023.12.12.306


Aim: Determining links between gestational diabetes mellitus and obesity and unfavorable pregnancy results. Methods: The participants in the study took a test called the oral glucose tolerance test among 28 and 36 weeks of pregnancy. The doctors diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) afterwards using specific criteria from the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Sets. They measured certain characteristics of the newborns, such as their birth weight, body fat percentage, and the level of a substance called C-peptide in their umbilical cord blood. They also looked at other outcomes, like the likelihood of having a cesarean delivery, preeclampsia (a condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy), in addition shoulder dystocia or birth injury. The participants' BMI remained considered during OGTT. The researchers used a statistical method called multiple logistic regression to see if there were any connections between GDM, obesity, and these outcomes. Results: On average, the mothers in the study had a body mass index (BMI) of 25.8. About 12.9% of them were considered obese, with a BMI higher than 35.1 kg/m2, and 17.2% were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Compared to women who did not have GDM or obesity, the likelihood of having a newborn through a birth weight above the 95th percentile was 4.18 times higher for those with GDM alone, 1.75 times higher for those with obesity alone, and 4.63 times higher for those with both GDM and obesity. The results were similar for other outcomes like the likelihood of having a primary cesarean delivery, preeclampsia (high blood pressure during pregnancy), and having high levels of cord C-peptide and newborn percent body fat above the 95th percentile. The chances of having a newborn with the birth weight above the 95th percentile increased with higher levels of glucose throughout oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and higher maternal BMI. Babies of obese women with GDM weighed, on average, 339 grams more than babies of normal or underweight women (who made up 61.3% of overall females) having normal glucose levels grounded on the OGTT test (which accounted for 62.9% of all women). Conclusion: Both gestational diabetes mellitus and obesity in mothers are linked to negative effects during pregnancy. They can independently increase the chances of experiencing complications. However, when GDM and obesity occur together, their combined impact is even greater than when either condition is present on its own.

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